- POPULAR CULTURE
- MENTAL HEALTH
- PHYSICAL SCIENCES
- BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
- APPLIED SCIENCES
- PRINT & MEDIA
When this website, its 4th edition, went online on 21/3/'10, this sub-section was concerned solely with 'environmental technology'. In the last two years, 21/3/'10 to 21/3/'12, though, I found it necessary to divide this sub-section into two separate sections. The first deals with ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY, and the second deals with OTHER ASPECTS OF TECHNOLOGY. When a 5th edition of my website comes out some time in the years ahead, I will have my website design and development people alter this section to reflect its new reality.
A: ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY: DEFINED AND DESCRIBED
Environmental technology, sometimes abbreviated as envirotech; or green technology, sometimes abbreviated as greentech; or clean technology abbreviated as cleantech---is the application of one or more of environmental science, green chemistry, environmental monitoring and electronic devices to monitor, model and conserve the natural environment and resources, and to curb the negative impacts of human involvement. The term is also used to describe sustainable energy generation technologies such as Photovoltaics, Wind Turbine's, Bioreactors, etc. Sustainable development is the core of environmental technologies. The term environmental technologies is also used to describe a class of electronic devices that can promote sustainable management of resources.
dessertification and climate change
“Desertification is a fancy word for land that is turning to desert,” begins Allan Savory in this quietly powerful talk. And it's happening to about two-thirds of the world’s grasslands, accelerating climate change and causing traditional grazing societies to descend into social chaos. Savory has devoted his life to stopping it. He now believes -- and his work so far shows -- that a surprising factor can protect grasslands and even reclaim degraded land that was once desert. Go to this link for a talk on the above subject:http://www.ted.com/talks/allan_savory_how_to_green_the_world_s_deserts_and_reverse_climate_change.html?source=facebook#.UZ2o_OET3JF.facebook
CREATIVE INDUSTRIES JOURNAL
The scope of the Creative Industries Journal is global, primarily aimed at those studying and practicing activities which have their origin in individual creativity, skill and talent, and which have a potential for wealth creation. These activities primarily take place in advertising, architecture, the art and antiques market, crafts, design, fashion, film, interactive leisure software, music, the performing arts, publishing, television and radio. The Creative Industries Journal has been included in the Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) list 2010. For more on journals of this kind with titles like: (1) Strategies for creative industries: an international review, and (2) Location, location, location: exploring the complex relationship between creative industries and place go to:http://www.intellectbooks.co.uk/search/search,query=Creative%2BIndustries%2BJournal/
EXAMPLES OF ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY
Doubly fed electric machine
Energy Saving Modules
Hydrogen fuel cell
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion
Renewable energy is energy that can be replenished easily. For years we have been using sources like wood, sun, water, etc. for means for producing energy. Energy that can be produced by natural objects like wood, sun, wind, etc. is considered to be renewable.
Water purification: The whole idea/concept of having dirt/germ/pollution free water flowing throughout the environment. Many other phenomena lead from this concept of purification of water. Water pollution is the main enemy of this concept, and various campaigns and activists have been organized around the world to help purify water. Considering the amount of water usage that is under current consumptions, this Concept is of utter Importance.
Air Purification: basic and common green plants can be grown indoors to keep air fresh because all plants remove CO2 and convert it into oxygen. The best examples are: Dypsis lutescens, Sansevieria trifasciata, and Epipremnum aureum.
OTHER ASPECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY
Go to this link for the following topics:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_technology
1.5 Sewage treatment
1.6 Environmental remediation
1.7 Solid waste management
1.8 eGain forecasting
1.9 Energy Conservation
2 Alternative and clean power
B. OTHER ASPECTS OF TECHNOLOGY
Technology is the making, modification, usage, and knowledge of tools, machines, techniques, crafts, systems, methods of organization, in order to solve a problem, improve a preexisting solution to a problem, achieve a goal, handle an applied input/output relation or perform a specific function. It can also refer to the collection of such tools, machinery, modifications, arrangements and procedures. Technologies significantly affect human as well as other animal species' ability to control and adapt to their natural environments. The word technology comes from a Greek word technología; from téchnē, meaning "art, skill, craft", and -logía, meaning "study of-". The term can either be applied generally or to specific areas: examples include construction technology, medical technology, and information technology.
The human species' use of technology began with the conversion of natural resources into simple tools. The prehistorical discovery of the ability to control fire increased the available sources of food and the invention of the wheel helped humans in travelling in and controlling their environment. Recent technological developments, including the printing press, the telephone, and the Internet, have lessened physical barriers to communication and allowed humans to interact freely on a global scale. However, not all technology has been used for peaceful purposes; the development of weapons of ever-increasing destructive power has progressed throughout history, from clubs to nuclear weapons.
Technology has affected society and its surroundings in a number of ways. In many societies, technology has helped develop more advanced economies, including today's global economy. Technology has allowed the rise of a leisure class. Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products, known as pollution, and deplete natural resources, to the detriment of the Earth and its environment. Various implementations of technology influence the values of a society and new technology often raises new ethical questions. Examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, a term originally applied only to machines, and the challenge of traditional norms.
Philosophical debates have arisen over the present and future use of technology in society, with disagreements over whether technology improves the human condition or worsens it. Neo-Luddism, anarcho-primitivism, and similar movements criticise the pervasiveness of technology in the modern world, opining that it harms the environment and alienates people; proponents of ideologies such as transhumanism and techno-progressivism view continued technological progress as beneficial to society and the human condition. Indeed, until recently, it was believed that the development of technology was restricted only to human beings, but recent scientific studies indicate that other primates and certain dolphin communities have developed simple tools and learned to pass their knowledge to other generations. For more go to:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technology
JOBS AND TECHNOLOGY
Technology is not something that we can divorce from life; indeed, it has an intimate connection with just about everything. Thomas Frey is the Executive Director and Senior Futurist at the DaVinci Institute. He is also the author of the groundbreaking book “Communicating with the Future,” Frey speaks at the link below to the Creative Innovation 2012 Conference in Melbourne. He talks about the impact new technologies will have on the jobs market in the future. He discusses: driverless cars, teacherless schools, printable houses and much more - we're in for a wild ride! November 2012. Two billion jobs will disappear in the next 20 years, by 2030 he says. Go to this link to listen to his lecture:http://www.themonthly.com.au/2-billion-jobs-disappear-2030-thomas-frey-7303
A PHILOSOPHY OF TECHNOLOGY
During the past fifteen years Bernard Stiegler has been elaborating a highly original philosophy of technology. Stiegler(1952- ) is a French philosopher at Goldsmiths, University of London, and at the Université de Technologie de Compiègne. In addition, he is Director of the Institut de recherche et d'innovation (IRI), founder in 2005 of the political and cultural group, Ars Industrialis, and founder in 2010 of the philosophy school, Ecole de Philosophie d’Epineuil-le-Fleuriel. His best known work is Technics and Time: The Fault of Epimetheus. Stiegler has recently started drawing critical political conclusions from his philosophy of technology. His influences are many. He has been influenced by the writings of Andre Leroi-Gourhan(1911-1986), the French archaeologist, paleontologist, paleoanthropologist, and anthropologist with an interest in technology and aesthetics and a penchant for philosophical reflection.
Stiegler has also been influenced by: Husserl, Heidegger, Derrida and Simondon, I leave it to readers to read about these other influences on Stiegler. Stiegler argues that anthropogenesis runs parallel to technogenesis in the sense that human beings and technical artifacts are always involved in a mutually constitutive relationship. As the subtitle of his first volume mentioned above, Technics and Time, suggests, Stiegler draws heavily on the famous Greek myth of the brothers Epimetheus and Prometheus to substantiate this provocative claim.
In Protagoras' version of this Greek myth and story as narrated by Plato, Epimetheus is granted the task of distributing qualities or powers(dynameis) among living creatures. The Titan performs his task by giving each creature one specific quality in order to promote equilibrium between the various species. But when it was time for the humans (non-aloga) to receive their due, Epimetheus, who was not particularly bright, suddenly realized that he had already handed out all available qualities. When Prometheus arrives at the scene to inspect Epimetheus' work, he is surprised to find out that the humans are still naked and without means of defense. Because he is worried that their premature constitution could lead to the total destruction of the human race, Prometheus attempts to make up for Epimetheus' fault and decides to steal the skills in the arts and fire (tekhnai) from the gods to compensate humans for their original lack of qualities.
What Stiegler aims to spotlight in his reading of this myth is the fundamental undefinability of the human or what he calls the human's "default of origin". Hence, technics is not a positive attribute of the human either, but merely an artificial prosthesis that is only adopted afterwards, by default, to compensate for a constitutive lack of origin. The figure of Prometheus, who traditionally stands for man's technical hubris, therefore only makes sense in connection to the figure of his idiotic brother Epimetheus. The fact that the latter's role in the story is usually forgotten by the tradition is just as remarkable as it is understandable, given that Epimetheus is himself essentially a figure of forgetting. Humans are forgetful creatures. They suffer from "retentional finitude," as Stiegler repeatedly suggests, and therefore need technical prostheses to supplement their limited capacity for memorization. Readers should note that this article is, as they say in the literature of many disciplines of the sciences, "heavy", and should only click on this link if their interest is significant. For more on this theme go to:http://www.ctheory.net/articles.aspx?id=706
HERBERT MARCUSE ET AL
Herbert Marcuse in the introduction to his 1964 book One Dimensional Man emphasizes the vital importance of the work of C. Wright Mills, especially his The Power Elite and The Sociological Imagination and of studies which are frequently frowned upon because of simplification, overstatement, or journalistic ease such as: Vance Packard's: The Hidden Persuaders, The Status Seekers, and The Waste Makers, William H. Whyte's The Organization Man, Fred J. Cooks The Warfare State belong in this category. To be sure, the lack of theoretical analysis in these works leaves the roots of the described conditions covered and protected. Left to speak for themselves, though, the conditions speak loudly enough. Perhaps the most telling evidence can be obtained by simply looking at television or listening to the AM radio for one consecutive hour for a couple of days, not shutting off the commercials, and now and then switching the station. Marcuse concludes this introduction by writing that: "My analysis is focused on tendencies in the most highly developed contemporary societies. There are large areas within and without these societies where the described tendencies do not prevail - I would say: not yet prevail. I am projecting these tendencies and I offer some hypotheses, nothing more". to read his entire introduction go to:http://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/marcuse/works/one-dimensional-man/introduction.htm
CRITICISM OF ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY
Extreme radical environmentalism, exhibited in publications such as Green Anarchy, criticizes the concept of environmental technology. From this viewpoint, technology is seen as a system rather than a specific physical tool. Technology, accordingly, requires the exploitation of the environment through the creation and extraction of resources, and the exploitation of people through labor, specialization and the division of labor. Thus, no “neutral” form of technology; things are always created in a certain context with certain aims and functions. Green technology is rejected as an attempt to reform this exploitative system, merely changing it on the surface to make it seem environmentally friendly, despite continued unsustainable levels of human and natural exploitation.